Nature: a major breakthrough! Human haploid embryonic stem cells!
March 18, 2016 / Bio Valley BIOON/-- in a new study, from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, Columbia University Medical Center and New York stem cell foundation will institute researchers real estate success, a new type of embryonic stem cells, it only carried a single copy in the human genome, instead of the usual in normal stem cells were found in the two copies of the human genome. Related research results were published online in the Journal Nature in March 16, 2016, the title of the paper is and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells Derivation".
This haploid embryonic stem cell described in this study is the first known to be able to produce a single copy of the human cells carrying the parental cell genome through cell division.
Human cells are thought to be diploid, because they are two sets of chromosomes, a total of 46 chromosomes, of which 23 are from the mother, 23 from the father. The only exception is the germ cells (eggs and sperm), which are haploid cells that contain a set of chromosomes, the 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells do not produce more eggs and sperm by division.
Previous efforts to produce embryonic stem cells from human embryos could result in the generation of double somatic stem cells. In this study, researchers have promoted the development of non fertilized human eggs. They then used a fluorescent dye labeled DNA to isolate these haploid embryonic stem cells, where they were scattered in more diploid cells.
The researchers confirmed these haploid embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, which means they can differentiate into many other types of cells, including nerve cells, heart cells and pancreatic cells, while maintaining a single set of chromosomes.
Communications co authors, Jerusalem of the Hebrew University of AZ column in stem cells and genetic research center director Nissim Benvenisty Dr. said. "This study for us to provide a new type of embryonic stem cells, they will study of human genetic and medical produced an important influence. These stem cells will provide scientists with a new tool to improve our understanding of human development, and why we are sexually reproducing rather than single parent."
Researchers have demonstrated that human haploid stem cells can be a powerful tool for genetic screening, using only one set of genes that can be targeted. Single copy genes that affect haploid stem cells will have the potential to promote the genetic analysis of biomedical applications such as cancer research, precision medicine and regenerative medicine.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem AZ column in stem cells and genetic research center doctoral Ido Sagi explained, "the use of one of the biggest advantage of haploid cells is more easy to edit their genes." In diploid cells, it is difficult to detect the biological effects of a single copy gene mutation, because another copy of the gene is normal, as a backup to play a role.
In view of the matching described in this study of haploid embryo stem cell and oocyte donor gene, they may can be used to develop cell based therapy to treat such as blindness and diabetes or the use of genetically identical cells provide the advantage of the treatment of the disease. This is because their genetic content is the same as that of germ cells, so they may also be used for reproductive purposes.
Communications co authors, Columbia University Medical Center for pediatric development assistant professor of cell biology Dieter egli, said, "this study is different, different research institutions cooperation between research outstanding examples.