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"Nature" and then focus on fire to explode CRISPR gene editing technology

2016-07-19 14:01:30 Suzhou Mingchem Pharmtech Co., Ltd Read

"Nature" and then focus on fire to explode CRISPR gene editing technology

Today's "nature" has three articles on this technology is discussed, the importance of this technology is the high degree of attention, 2015 did not receive the Nobel prize, 2016 is still a big hit. This technology is now not only a technical problem, has affected the development of policy and ethics, but also to the whole of the biomedical industry provides a simple economic revolutionary technology. Research on folk biology also began to use this technology to go to the front desk, is expected some DIY CRISPR technology enthusiasts will soon in academic journals and conference report their findings, let biology academic research from a niche of the past become popular science study of entertainment. These are subversive concepts and changes, all because of the emergence of this CRISPR technology.

Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) molecular biologist Timothy Doran, 11 year old daughter allergic to eggs, in the world, about 2% of children allergic to eggs, these patients are unable to inoculation with egg culture vaccines. Doran, a professor of biology, is supposed to be able to solve this problem by using powerful gene editing tools, CRISPR, Cas9.

Most egg allergens are proteins in the four kinds of protein, Doran's colleagues used bacteria coding which a after the mutation of the protein, this protein no longer with egg allergic patients' sera react that as long as the structure of these proteins is modified, entirely possible for patients with egg allergy eat eggs, made by chicken embryo inoculation of vaccine. The whole idea is to use the CRISPR to modify the four protein genes of chicken, these chickens can produce non allergic eggs.

Doran group hopes to come up with the first generation of genetically modified chickens in 2016, to prove the concept of the feasibility of this idea. Doran is clearly using the genetically modified chicken to be authorized by the regulatory authorities, but he hopes his daughter will have the opportunity to benefit from it.

By the labor force and the efficiency of the restrictions, in the past, only a small number of scientists selected species for gene transformation. CRISPR technology to make this a complete change, because the technology is not only high efficiency, but also simple and easy to implement. The chicken is just a member of the CRISPR zoo. Only in the past two years, genetically modified monkey, mammoth like, mosquitoes, pet pig and so on animals have become science in the news headlines, the scientists used this technology for agriculture, drug production and resurrection of extinct organisms. This is not only a technological revolution, but also a transformation of the scientific paradigm. Roslin Institute of Edinburgh, animal biotechnology expert Whitelaw Bruce said that many of the ideas in the past did not dare to think, the entire biomedical industry has shifted to the field of gene editing.

To account for these new species may affect the ecological system and regulators around the world is not ideal for these new biological measures, especially on what could be as food or can be released into the wild species. The head of the American think tank, who has expressed concern about the simple economic and highly effective gene editing technology, could lead to uncertain risks, and it is hard to avoid some of the people making harmful species. Washington biotechnology regulatory policy expert Eleonore Pauwels said CRISPR animals prompted scientists and policy makers of open dialogue, she hopes the discussion can help determine the CRISPR can is good for humans and other species, and the scientific, puts forward that it is necessary to prevent the abuse of this technology.

To improve the resistance of CRISPR in the field of agriculture is the most easy to take into account the application, the scientists through the animal genes to modify, improve the resistance of these animals, thereby reducing the use of drugs. San Francisco biotechnology company Gillis Brian on the hope that the use of genetic modification technology to transform the bees, to avoid a large number of deaths due to illness and parasitic infections caused by bees.

Gillis is studying the genome of the "bee", a bee that is obsessed with cleaning the hive and cleaning the sick and infected bees. These bees are not susceptible to the threat of mites, fungi and other pathogens. If the genes that produce these behaviors can be determined, they can be transferred to other bee populations and increase their resistance to disease.

The ability of anti mite of bee research scholars Boxmeer bee research organization, BartJan Fernhou, he thinks this strategy is very difficult to achieve, because did not find the behavior of specific genes, leading to the root of these behavior is more complex. Even in the presence of this gene, the use of traditional breeding technology can achieve the goal, there is no need to use this high risk of genetically modified.

Despite this concern, it seems that there is no impact on the speed of study of genetically modified. Roslyn Whitelaw Institute and other teams on the use of CRISPR technology to the pig into the antiviral gene, this technology is expected to bring huge profits to the pig industry. Whitelaw research also in another gene editing technique modified immune related genes, improve the pig to resist the ability of African swine fever.

Prather Randall of the University of Missouri in Columbia has mutated a cell surface protein of pigs to make it less susceptible to infection with a severe fatal respiratory virus. A similar transformation strategy to improve the anti infection ability of bovine trypanosomiasis prevention of sleeping sickness by scientists.

Whitelaw Institute hopes regulators and consumers can have a more optimistic attitude towards these genetically modified animals. Some governments are also considering whether it is necessary to treat CRISPR technology in a way that is genetically modified. The latter does not turn to other genes, but only genetically modified species.

Doran's plan is to cause allergies.

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